ISPID - International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death
ISPID - International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death

International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death

Earlier Scientific Publications on Sudden Infant Death

Please find below a reference list of selected peer-reviewed papers relating to SIDS or SUDI, published more than 2 years ago. The references have kindly been supplied by members of ISPID.


Blair PS, Sidebotham P, Pease A, Fleming PJ. Bed-sharing in the absence of hazardous circumstances: is there a risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome? An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK. PlosONE 2014; 9 (9): e107799. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107799

Highet AR, Berry AM, Bettelheim KA, Goldwater PN. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position. Int J Microbiol 2014; 304: in press. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.05.007 

Mage DT. The consistent ~50% excess male infant mortality rate from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and other respiratory diseases is evidence of an X-linkage. J Mol Genet Med 2014; 8: 123. doi:10.4172/1747-0862.1000123 

Rechtman LR, Colvin JD, Blair PS, Moon RY. Sofas and infant mortality. Pediatrics 2014; 134 (5): e1293-300. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1543

Rhein LM, Dobson NR, Darnall RA, Corwin MJ, Heeren TC, Poets CF, McEntire BL, Hunt CE, and The Caffeine Pilot Study Group. Effects of caffeine on intermittent hypoxia in infants born prematurely: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics 2014; 168 (3): 250-257. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4371

Scheimberg I, Ashal H, Kotiloglu-Karaa E, French P, Kay P, Cohen MC. Weight charts of infants dying of sudden infant death in England. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2014; 17 (4): 271-7. doi:10.2350/13-08-1362-OA.1


Carpenter R, McGarvey C, Mitchell EA, Tappin DM, Vennemann MM, Smuk M, Carpenter JR. Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. BMJ Open 2013; 3: e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299 [Responses]

Cohen MC, Offiah A, Sprigg A, Al-Adnani M. Vitamin D deficiency and sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood: a cohort study. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2013; 16 (4): 292-300. doi:10.2350/13-01-1293-OA.1

Gilbert NL, Auger N, Wilkins R, Kramer MS. Neighbourhood income and neonatal, postneonatal and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) mortality in Canada, 1991-2005. Can J Public Health 2013; 104: e187-e192. Abstract

Goldwater PN, Bettelheim KA. SIDS risk factors: time for new interpretations. The role of bacteria. Pediatr Res Int J 2013; Vol 2013: Article ID 867520. doi:10.5171/2013.867520


Bettelheim KA, Luke RKJ, Johnston N, Pearce JL, Goldwater PN. A possible murine model for investigation of pathogenesis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Curr Microbiol 2012; 64 (3): 276-278. doi:10.1007/s00284-011-0065-4

Gilbert NL, Fell DB, Joseph KS, Liu S, León JA, Sauve R. Temporal trends in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Canada from 1991 to 2005: contribution of changes in cause of death assignment practices and in maternal and infant characteristics. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2012; 26 (2): 124-130. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2011.01248.x

Jenik A, Fustiñana C, Marquez M, Mage D, Fernandez G, Mariani G. A new bottle design decreases hypoxemic episodes during feeding in preterm infants. Int J Pediatr 2012; 2012: 531608. doi:10.1155/2012/531608

Kuhnert R, Schlaud M, Poethko-Müller C, Vennemann M, Fleming P, Blair PS, Mitchell E, Thompson J, Hecker H. Reanalyses of case-control studies examining the temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome and vaccination. Vaccine 2012; 30 (13): 2349-56. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.043

Mage DT, E. Donner M, Vennemann M, Fleming P, Sol-Church K, Drake R, Gulino SP. All sudden unexplained infant respiratory deaths may result from the same underlying mechanism. Scand J Foren Sci 2012; 18 (1): 2-10. doi:10.2478/v10278-012-0001-6

Mage DT, Donner EM. Re: "SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment". eLetter to Pediatrics. Published July 16, 2012.

Mage DT. Comment on: A commentary on changing infant death rates and a plea to use sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS] as a cause of death. Letter. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2012. doi:10.1007/s12024-012-9354-x

Mage DT. An anomaly in U.S. SIDS data reported in the CDC mortality database. Letter. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2012.

Mage DT. Do infants die of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) with Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) or from LQTS? Letter. Pediatr Cardiol 2012. doi:10.1007/s00246-012-0460-z

McGarvey CM, O'Regan M, Cryan J, Treacy A, Hamilton K, Devaney D, Matthews T. Sudden unexplained death in childhood (1–4 years) in Ireland: an epidemiological profile and comparison with SIDS. Arch Dis Child 2012; 97. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2011-301393

Mitchell EA, Blair PS. SIDS prevention: 3000 lives saved but we can do better. New Z Med J 2012; 125: 50-57. Article

Moon RY, Fu L. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: an update. Pediatr Rev 2012; 33 (6): 314-320. doi:10.1542/pir.33-7-314

Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Camperlengo LT, Kim SY, Covington T. The sudden unexpected infant death case registry: a method to improve surveillance. Pediatrics 2012; 129: 1-8. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0854

Vennemann MM, Hense HW, Bajanowski T, Blair PS, Complojer C, Moon RY, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U. Bed sharing and the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: can we resolve the debate? J Pediatr 2012; 160 (1): 44-8.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.06.052

Vennemann MM, Loddenkötter B, Fracasso T, Mitchell EA, Debertin AS, Larsch KP, Sperhake JP, Brinkmann B, Sauerland C, Lindemann M, Bajanowski T. Cytokines and sudden infant death. Int J Legal Med 2012; 126 (2): 279-84. doi:10.1007/s00414-011-0638-6

Witcombe NB, Yiallourou SR, Sands SA, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Preterm birth alters the maturation of baroreflex sensitivity in sleeping infants. Pediatrics 2012; 129 (1): e89-96. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1504

Yiallourou S, Sands S, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Maturation of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability during Sleep in Term-Born Infants. Sleep 2012; 35 (2): 177-86. doi:10.5665/sleep.1616

Young J, Watson K, Ellis L, Raven L. Responding to evidence: Breastfeed baby if you can - the sixth public health recommendation to reduce the risk of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. Breastfeeding Review 2012; 20 (1): 7-15. Abstract


Blair PS, Byard RW, Fleming PJ. Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI): suggested classification and applications to facilitate research activity. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2011. doi:10.1007/s12024-011-9294-x

Carlberg MM, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Goodman M. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed in US infants. Matern Child Health J 2011. doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0855-0

Finlay CJ, Krueger G. A space for mothers: grief as identity construction on memorial websites created by SIDS parents. Omega 2011; 63 (1): 21-44. doi:10.2190/OM.63.1.b

Fracasso T, Vennemann M, Klocker M, Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B, Pfeiffer H, et al. Petechial bleedings in sudden infant death. Int J Legal Med 2011; 125 (2): 205-10. doi:10.1007/s00414-010-0421-0

Goldwater PN. A perspective on SIDS pathogenesis. The hypotheses: plausibility and evidence. BMC Medicine 2011; 9: 64. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-64

Hauck FR, Tanabe KO, Moon RY. Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality. Semin Perinatol 2011; 35 (4): 209-20. doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2011.02.018

Hauck FR, Thompson JMD, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM. Breastfeeding and reduced risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2011, published ahead of print. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3000

Kaltman JR, Thompson PD, Lantos J, Berul CI, Botkin J, Cohen JT, Cook NR, Corrado D, Drezner J, Frick KD, Goldman S, Hlatky M, Kannankeril PJ, Leslie L, Priori S, Saul JP, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, David Siscovick, Vetter VL, Boineau R, Burns KM, Friedman RA. Screening for sudden cardiac death in the young: report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute working group. Circulation 2011; 123; 1911-1918. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.017228

Kim SY, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Chu SY, Camperlengo LT, Anderson RN. Differentiating cause-of-death terminology for deaths coded as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, accidental suffocation, and unknown cause: an investigation using US death certificates, 2003-2004. J Forensic Sci 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01937.x

Kuhnert R, Hecker H, Poethko-Müller C, Schlaud M, Vennemann M, Whitakerd HJ, Farringtond CP. A modified self-controlled case series method to examine association between multi-dose vaccinations and death. Statist Med 2011; 30: 666-677. doi:10.1002/sim.4120

Mage DT, Donner EM. The universal age distribution of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Scand J Foren Sci 2011; 17 (1): 7-11.

Mitchell EA, Freemantle J, Young J, Byard RW. Scientific consensus forum to review the evidence underpinning the recommendations of the Australian SIDS and Kids Safe Sleeping Health Promotion Programme – October 2010. J Paediatr Child Health 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2011.02215.x

Moon RY, Darnall RA, Goodstein MH, Hauck FR, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Willinger M. American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Policy statement. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics 2011; 128 (5): 1030-9. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2284

Moon RY, Darnall RA, Goodstein MH, Hauck FR, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Willinger M, American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Technical report. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics 2011; 128; (5): e1341-67. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2285

Moon RY, Yang DC, Tanabe KO, Young HA, Hauck FR. Pacifier use and SIDS: Evidence for a consistently reduced risk. Matern Child Hlth J 20 April 2011; Epub ahead of print. doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0793-x

Spong CY, Iams J, Goldenberg R, Hauck FR, Willinger M. Disparities in perinatal medicine: preterm birth, stillbirth and infant mortality. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117 (4): 948-55. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e318211726f

Stacey T, Thompson JMD, Mitchell EA, Ekeroma AJ, Zuccollo JM, McCowan LME. Association between maternal sleep practices and risk of late stillbirth: a case-control study. BMJ 2011; 342: d3403. doi:10.1136/bmj.d3403

Wong FY, Witcombe NB, Yiallourou SR, Yorkston S, Dymowski AR, Krishnan L, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Cerebral oxygenation is depressed during sleep in healthy term infants when they sleep prone. Pediatrics 2011; 127 (3): e558-65. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2724

Yiallourou S, Sands S, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Baroreflex sensitivity during sleep in infants: Impact of sleeping position and sleep state. Sleep 2011; 34 (6): 725-732. doi:10.5665/sleep.1036


Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy. Special issue of Current Pediatric Reviews 2010; 6 (1): 1-101. Content

Blair PS, Heron J, Fleming PJ. Relationship between bed sharing and breastfeeding: longitudinal, population-based analysis. Pediatrics 2010; 126 (5): e1119-26. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1277

Camperlengo LT, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Shin Y. Kim SY. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: diagnostic practices and investigative policies, 2004. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2010. doi:10.1097/PAF.0b013e3181fe33bd

Dietz PM, England LJ, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Tong VT, Farr SL, Callaghan WM. Infant morbidity and mortality attributable to prenatal smoking in the US. Am J Prev Med 2010; 39 (1): 45-52. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.009

Duncan JR, Paterson DS, Hoffman JM, Mokler DJ, Borenstein NS, Belliveau RA, Krous HF, Haas EA, Stanley C, Nattie EE, Trachtenberg FL, Kinney HC. Brainstem serotonergic deficiency in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. JAMA 2010; 303 (5): 430-437. Abstract

Fracasso T, Karger B, Vennemann M, Bajanowski T, Golla-Schindler UM, Pfeiffer H. Amniotic fluid aspiration in cases of SIDS. Int J Legal Med 2010; 124 (2): 113-7. doi:10.1007/s00414-009-0384-1

Franco P, Kato I, Richardson HL, Yang JSC, Montemitro E, Horne RSC. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants. Sleep Med 2010; 11 (7): 603-614. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2009.12.014

Fu LY, Moon RY, Hauck FR. Bed sharing among black infants and sudden infant death syndrome: Interactions with other known risk factors. Acad Pediatr 2010; 10: 376-82. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2010.09.001

Hauck FR, Tanabe KO. International trends in sudden infant death syndrome and other sudden unexpected deaths in infancy: Need for better diagnostic standardization. Current Pediatr Rev 2010; 6 (1): 95-101.*

Horne RSC, Witcombe NB, Yiallourou SR, Richardson HL. Physiology during sleep in infants: implications for the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Curr Ped Rev 2010; 6 (1): 30-38.*

Hunt CE, Hauck FR. Gene and gene-environment risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome and sudden unexpected death in infancy. Current Pediatr Rev 2010; 6 (1): 56-62.*

Horne RSC, Witcombe NB, Yiallourou SR, Scaillet S, Thiriez G, Franco P. Cardiovascular control during sleep in infants: Implications for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Sleep Med 2010; 11 (7): 615-621. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2009.10.008

Livolsi A, Niederhoffer N, Dali-Youcef N, Rambaud C, Olexa C, Mokni W, Gies JP, Bousquet P. Cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression in sudden infant death syndrome. PLoS ONE 2010; 5 (3): e9464. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009464

Poetsch M, Czerwinski M, Wingenfeld L, Vennemann M, Bajanowski T. A common FMO3 polymorphism may amplify the effect of nicotine exposure in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Int J Legal Med 2010; 124 (4): 301-6. doi:10.1007/s00414-010-0428-6

Poetsch M, Nottebaum BJ, Wingenfeld L, Frede S, Vennemann M, Bajanowski T. Impact of sodium/proton exchanger 3 gene variants on sudden infant death syndrome. J Pediatr 2010; 156 (1): 44-8. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.07.018

Richardson HL, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Influence of swaddling experience on spontaneous arousal patterns and autonomic control in sleeping infants. J Pediatrics 2010; 157 (1): 85-91. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.01.005

Richardson HL, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Sleeping like a baby – does gender influence infant arousability? Sleep 2010; 33 (8): 1055-60. Paper

Richardson HL, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Stimulus type does not affect infant arousal response patterns. J Sleep Research 2010; 19 (1): 111-115. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00764.x

Schlaud M, Dreier M, Debertin AS, Jachau K, Heide S, Giebe B, Sperhake JP, Poets CF, Kleemann WJ. The German case-control scene investigation study on SIDS: epidemiological approach and main results. Int J Legal Med 2010; 124: 19-26. doi:10.1007/s00414-009-0317-z

Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Kim SY, Chu SY, Kahn E, Anderson RN. Using death certificates to characterize Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): opportunities and limitations. J Pediatr 2010; 156: 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.07.017

Sidebotham P, Blair PS, Evason Coombe C, Edmond M, Heckstall-Smith E, Fleming P. Responding to Unexpected Infant Deaths: Experience in One English Region. Arch Dis Child 2010; 95 (4): 291-5. doi:10.1136/adc.2009.167619

Witcombe NB, Yiallourou SR, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Delayed blood pressure recovery after head-up tilting in preterm infants. J Sleep Research 2010; 19 (1): 93-102. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00793.x

Yiallourou S, Sands S, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Postnatal development of baroreflex sensitivity in infancy. J Physiol 2010; 588 (12): 2193-2203. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.187070

*) This paper's manuscript is available here.

Before 2010

Mage DT, Donner M. A Unifying Theory for SIDS. Int J Pediatrics 2009; ID 368270. Abstract, Article

Blair PS, Sidebotham P, Evason-Coombe C, Edmonds M, Heckstall-Smith EMA, Fleming P. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ 2009; 339: b3666. Abstract, Article

Blair PS, Mitchell EA, Heckstall-Smith EM, Fleming PJ. Head Covering - A major modifiable risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A systematic review. Arch Dis Child 2008; 93 (9): 778-783. Article

Hauck FR, Tanabe KO. International trends in sudden infant death syndrome: stabilization of rates requires further action. Pediatrics 2008; 122: 660-666. Article

Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Moon RY. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and child care centres (CCC). Acta Paediatrica 2008; 97: 844-845. Article

Carpenter RG, Waite A, Coombs RC, Daman-Willems C, McKenzie A, Huber J, Emery JL. Repeat sudden unexpected and unexplained infant deaths: natural or unnatural? Lancet 2005; 365 (9453): 29-35. Free access in the ISPID Members Area. Abstract, Lancet's Press Release

Kahn A, European Society for the Study and Prevention of Infant Death. Recommended clinical evaluation of infants with an Apparent Life-Threatening Event (ALTE). Consensus document of the European Society for the Study and Prevention of Infant Death, 2003. Kahn, A. Eur J Pediatr 2004; 163 (2): 108-115. A few offprints are still available from the webmaster. Abstract

Carpenter RG, Irgens LM, Blair P, England PD, Fleming P, Huber J, Jorch G, Schreuder P. Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet 2004; 363: 185-191. Free access in the ISPID Members Area. Abstract, Appendices

Rognum TO, Arnestad M, Bajanowski T, Banner J, Blair P, Borthne A, Byard RW, Gaustad P, Gregersen M, Grøgaard J, Holter E, Isaksen CV, Jørgensen JV, Krous HF, de Lange C, Moore I, Mørland J, Opdal SH, Rästen-Almqvist P, Schlaud M, Sidebotham P, Skullerud K, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Stray-Pedersen A, Sveum L, Vege Å. Consensus on diagnostic criteria for the exclusion of SIDS. Scand J Forensic Med 2003; 9: 62-73. Article

Rognum TO. 10th ISPID Conference: Co-sleeping should be discouraged. Scand J Forensic Med 2003; 9: 43-44. Article

Schlaud M, Eberhard C, Trumann B, Kleemann WJ, Poets CF, Tietze KW, Schwartz FW. Prevalence and determinants of the prone sleeping position in infants: results from two cross-sectional studies on risk factors for SIDS in Germany. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 51-57. Article

Kahn A. In honour of John L Emery. J SIDS Inf Mort 1997; 2: 175-176. Article

Bentele KHP. The European Society for the Study and Prevention of Infant Death (ESPID). J SIDS Inf Mort 1996; 1: 141-144. Article

Schlaud M, Kleemann WJ, Poets CF, Sens B. Smoking during pregnancy and poor antenatal care: two major preventable risk factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25: 959-965. Article

Kahn A. The European Society for the Study and Prevention of Infant Death (ESPID). Biol Neonate 1992; 61: 259-270. Article

Top of page